Warsaw Citadel


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Warsaw Citadel
The Citadel is a massive 19th-century fortress overlooking the Vistula. It was built by the Russian tsar Nicholas I to intimidate Warsaw following the November Insurrection of 1830.

Pavilion No.10 was the high security wing where patriotic Polish prisoners were confined, among them the insurrectionist Romuald Traugutt, the politician Roman Dmowski and the warrior Józef Piłsudski, who managed to escape from transport to Siberia and later became marshal. Today the Citadel hosts the European Academy of Art and The Museum of Independence. The exhibitions illustrate the history of the Polish struggle for national liberation and social changes. The huge gate overlooking the river is known as Gate of Execution, a place where political prisoners were executed after the 1863 uprising.

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